Operational (tactical) and strategic mathematical models are used in the optimization decision process to determine more efficient and effective ways to control and manage a system or process. Mathematical models are routinely used in natural sciences (physics, biology), engineering (artificial intelligence, computer science) and social science (economics, political science). However, the lack of agreement between theoretical (mathematical) models and experimental measurement in any discipline often leads to important advances since better theories are developed. Optimization helps create better theories and improves systems/processes in many disciplines. The biggest challenge is to engage the designer, collect the appropriate data and determine the appropriate model (linear vs. nonlinear, deterministic vs. probabilistic, static vs. dynamic or discrete vs. continuous).